CBD oil in eyedropper and bottle against Hemp Plant

What is CBD

  1. What is CBD
  2. How is CBD Different from Marijuana?
  3. The Evidence for CBD Health Benefits
  4. Side Effects of CBD
  5. Different Types + Different Ways to Consume CBD
  6. Is CBD Legal?
  7. How to Buy CBD?
  8. References

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound produced by the hemp plant that has been in use for thousands of years for the purpose of health and well-being. It has no psychoactive side effects. CBD is now found in a variety of products for humans and animals and its popularity is increasing among those who wish to live healthier lives. 

CBD is a chemical that is found in the Cannabis sativa plant, also called hemp or cannabis [1]. There are over 80 chemicals called cannabinoids that are found in the Cannabis sativa plant. The most well-known ingredient in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, CBD is extracted from hemp, a type of Cannabis sativa plant that contains minute amounts of THC (in general below 0.3%). 

CBD has effects on certain chemicals produced in the brain but these effects are different as compared to the psychoactive effects produced by THC. CBD is used in prescription form for epilepsy, a seizure disorder [2]. It is also utilized for pain, anxiety, a muscle disorder known as dystonia, Crohn’s disease [3], Parkinson’s disease [4], and many other conditions..  

How is CBD Different from Marijuana?

CBD is the second most frequent active ingredient in cannabis (marijuana) [17]. As CBD is a vital component of marijuana of medical importance [18], it is extracted directly from the hemp plant, a cousin of marijuana, or produced in a laboratory. Among hundreds of the components of marijuana, CBD does not result in a “high” by itself. It is the delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) of the marijuana plant that causes the high, also known as psychoactive effects. 

The World Health Organization has reported that CBD does not exhibit effects which cause dependence or abuse potential and said that there is no evidence of health related problems linked with consuming pure CBD.

The Evidence for CBD Health Benefits

CBD has been merchandised for various types of health issues [8], but the most robust scientific evidence is for its efficacy in the treatment of the savage childhood epilepsy syndromes, for example, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) and Dravet syndrome, which are incapable of responding to anti-seizure medications. In a number of studies, CBD was capable of reducing the occurrence of seizures and in certain cases is capable of stopping them altogether. The first cannabis-based medicine containing CBD was Epidiolex which was approved by the FDA for such types of conditions. 

Many human research studies, animal studies, and self-reports[9] have suggested that CBD can be helpful with: 

  • Chronic pain: Human studies are still required to justify the claims that CBD assists in controlling pain. An animal study published in the European Journal of Pain has suggested that CBD assisted in lowering inflammation and pain as a result of arthritis when it is used on the skin. Other researches have identified how CBD may inhibit neuropathic and inflammatory pain, which are difficult to overcome [10]. 
  • Anxiety:  Various studies and clinical trials are trying to explore the common report that CBD can result in the reduction of anxiety [11].
  • Insomnia: It has been proven by studies that CBD assists in both falling asleep as well as staying asleep [12]. 

  • Epilepsy: A specific prescription product, Epidiolex has been approved by the US FDA to treat seizures caused by Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, or tuberous sclerosis complex [13]. 
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS): A prescription-only nasal spray product, Sativex which contains both 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol has been shown to be useful for improving pain, muscle-tightness, and urination frequency in patients with MS [14, 15].
  • Addiction: CBD can assist in reducing the cravings for heroin and tobacco under various conditions as depicted by certain researches carried out in humans. Animal models of addiction have also suggested it might also assist in reducing cravings for stimulants, opiates, cannabis, and alcohol [16].

Side Effects of CBD

CBD has been proven to be safe to take in appropriate doses. Doses of up to 200 mg daily have been used safely for up to 13 weeks [21]. With the guidance of a healthcare provider, a specific prescription CBD product (Epidiolex) has been used at higher doses and for longer durations.

CBD studies have shown that CBD can cause some side effects, such as dry mouthlow blood pressure, lightheadedness, and drowsiness [22]. Signs of liver injury have also been reported with high doses of the prescription form of CBD, called Epidiolex. 

Different Types + Different Ways to Consume CBD

CBD is available in various forms including extracts, oils [5], patches, capsules, vapes, tinctures [6], gummies, and topical preparations for utilization over the skin. For example, the best way to relieve muscle and joint pain and to reduce inflammation is to use a topical infused with CBD, such as a CBD salve or CBD Balm. . On the other hand, a CBD tincture that is designed to go directly under the tongue permits CBD to enter directly into the bloodstream and is commonly used to reduce anxiety or promote a healthy good night’s sleep. These forms of CBD consumption do not get you high (have psychoactive properties). They are for medicinal purposes only.

The form in which CBD is consumed matters a lot. Inhaled CBD reaches the blood immediately, attaining a high concentration in 30 minutes and enhancing the risk of acute side effects. But smoking CBD is not healthy [7]. CBD taken orally needs more time to absorb and does not produce an elevated concentration peak, even though they are capable of eventually reaching high levels enough to lead towards an issue or interaction with other medications [5]. CBD Tincutres that go under the tongue are abosrobed into the bloodstream much quicker than CBD in other oral forms such as gummies or softgels. Topical formulations, such as creams and lotions, are frequently used for specific localized pain and inflammation, or for skin issues. Topical CBD has been shown in some studies to not absorb into circulation in sufficient amount to interact with other medications, although more studies are needed for a bigger body of data to show exactly how much CBD is absorbed into the bloodstream through topicals.

One complication of CBD is that CBD products can be sold by companies claiming certain things, but if you test the product you will find the contents and levels are not what you thought you were purchasing. It is extremely important to purchase your CBD from a company that performs third party lab testing   for safety, concentration, and purity. These lab tests, or COAs, will show you exactly what compounds are in the product and how much of each compound is present. 

Is CBD Legal?

Hemp-derived CBD is readily available in most parts of the US, and is legal in all states, although the laws around purchasing and consumption vary state by state. All 50 states have laws that legalize CBD with different degrees of restriction. In December 2015, the FDA alleviated the regulatory requirements to permit researchers to conduct CBD trials. In 2018, the Farm Bill rendered hemp legal in the US, making it virtually not possible to keep CBD illegal [19, 20]. A quick Google search will give you info on your specific state. 

How to Buy CBD?

The best quality of CBD is full-spectrum with high bioavailability from a reputable and trustworthy source that performs and shares results of third party lab testing. You can find the best quality on our website milehighcitycbd.com/shop.

References:

  1. Zuardi, A.W., et al., Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research, 2006. 39: p. 421-429.
  2. Ames, F., Anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol. S Afr Med J, 1986. 69: p. 14.
  3. Naftali, T., et al., Low-dose cannabidiol is safe but not effective in the treatment for Crohn’s disease, a randomized controlled trial. Digestive diseases and sciences, 2017. 62(6): p. 1615-1620.
  4. Zuardi, A.W., et al., Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2009. 23(8): p. 979-983.
  5. How Does, C., CBD Oils for PTSD.
  6. Cornwell, M., CBD Tinctures: All You Need to Know.
  7. Ohlsson, A., et al., Single‐dose kinetics of deuterium‐labelled cannabidiol in man after smoking and intravenous administration. Biomedical & environmental mass spectrometry, 1986. 13(2): p. 77-83.
  8. Zuardi, A.W., Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 2008. 30: p. 271-280.
  9. Harvey, D., E. Samara, and R. Mechoulam, Comparative metabolism of cannabidiol in dog, rat and man. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 1991. 40(3): p. 523-532.
  10. Boyaji, S., et al., The role of cannabidiol (CBD) in chronic pain management: an assessment of current evidence. Current pain and headache reports, 2020. 24(2): p. 1-6.
  11. Crippa, J.A.S., et al., Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Journal of psychopharmacology, 2011. 25(1): p. 121-130.
  12. Carlini, E.A. and J.M. Cunha, Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1981. 21(S1): p. 417S-427S.
  13. Devinsky, O., et al., Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia, 2014. 55(6): p. 791-802.
  14. Barnes, M.P., Sativex®: clinical efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy, 2006. 7(5): p. 607-615.
  15. Collin, C., et al., Randomized controlled trial of cannabis‐based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. European journal of neurology, 2007. 14(3): p. 290-296.
  16. Batalla, A., et al., The potential of cannabidiol as a treatment for psychosis and addiction: who benefits most? A systematic review. Journal of clinical medicine, 2019. 8(7): p. 1058.
  17. Rubin, R., Cannabidiol products are everywhere, but should people be using them? Jama, 2019. 322(22): p. 2156-2158.
  18. Hoffmann, D.E. and E. Weber, Medical marijuana and the law. New England Journal of Medicine, 2010. 362(16): p. 1453-1457.
  19. Abernethy, A., Hemp Production & 2018 Farm Bill. US Food and Drug Administration, 2019.
  20. Coit, M., The Fate of Industrial Hemp in the 2018 Farm Bill-Will Our Collective Ambivalence Finally be Resolved. J. Food L. & Pol’y, 2018. 14: p. 12.
  21. Consroe, P., K. Kennedy, and K. Schram, Assay of plasma cannabidiol by capillary gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectroscopy following high-dose repeated daily oral administration in humans. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 1991. 40(3): p. 517-522.
  22. Machado Bergamaschi, M., et al., Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Current drug safety, 2011. 6(4): p. 237-249.

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